Autoimmunity results when the immune system, normally tasked to defend against infections and cancer, attacks the body’s own tissues. There are over 80 clinically-distinct autoimmune diseases that differ in terms of which tissues are targeted and which therapies are most effective. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) result in the destruction of joints and the intestinal tract, respectively. These diseases respond well to agents such as adalimumab (Humira) and etanercept (Enbrel) that block the action of TNF-alpha, a cytokine that can promote inflammation. During multiple sclerosis (MS) the immune system attacks the central nervous system resulting in progressive neurologic deficits. Despite being an inflammatory disease, multiple sclerosis is actually worsened through the use of anti-TNF-alpha therapies.
Identifying the fundamental dysfunction at the root of an autoimmune disease would aid in choosing the best of available therapies or devising new ones. Advances in genome sequencing technology have allowed researchers to generate an expanding list of genetic differences present in individuals with various autoimmune diseases compared to healthy people. Although several of these disease-associated gene variants have known roles in the immune system, how they contribute to specific autoimmune processes is largely unknown. There is a need for functional characterization of these gene variants in order to determine how they alter immunity and to stratify them as therapeutic targets.
Dr. David Rawlings’ group at Seattle Children’s Hospital sought to address this challenge in a recent paper published in the May 2013 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The group, with lead author Dr. Xuezhi Dai, investigated a genetic variant of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) which had previously been linked to several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), RA, Graves’ Disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PTPN22 encodes an enzyme called LYP, a protein tyrosine phosphatase whose general function is to modulate the intensity of certain signals within cellular signaling networks. The disease-linked variant results in an amino acid switch from arginine to tryptophan at position 620 (LYP-R620W). How LYP or LYP-R620W work to modulate immune activity is incompletely understood.
To gain insight into the role of LYP-R620W in autoimmune patients, Dai et al. created a genetically engineered mouse with an analogous arginine to tryptophan switch in the mouse version of LYP (called PEP-R619W). The “knock-in” mice expressing PEP-R619W were viable but had slightly shorter life spans compared to their counterparts with normal PEP. As the engineered mice aged they manifested signs of autoimmunity, such as inflamed lung tissue and blood vessels, as well as signs of chronic kidney damage. In addition, PEP-R619W rendered the mice more susceptible to an experimental form of type 1 diabetes. These mice also produced numerous auto-antibodies, a hallmark of certain autoimmune diseases.
The PEP-R619W knock-in mouse allowed the authors to look in close detail at the effect of this gene variant on specific immune cell populations. Dai et al. found that the knock-in mice had larger numbers of activated/memory T cells than their normal counterparts, indicating a chronically active immune system. T cells from the knock-in mice were shown to be hyper-responsive to stimulation of their antigen receptors indicating augmentation of the intracellular signals that dictate T cell activation. Similarly, the authors found that knock-in mice had larger numbers of specific B cell populations that occur in active immune states. B cells from the knock-in mice proliferated more than those from normal animals in response to stimulation and were more easily induced to secrete antibody. These findings led the authors to conclude that expression of PEP-R619W results in a lower threshold for activation in both T and B cells which contributed to the autoimmune phenotype. Interestingly, the authors discovered that expression of the disease-linked variant exclusively in B cells was sufficient to generate mice with signs of autoimmunity.
Dai et al. provide a great example of how the tools of bench science can be used to deepen the knowledge gained from analysis of patient specimens. Further determination of PEP/LYP substrate specificity and the dynamics of its phosphatase activity during lymphocyte activation could generate targets for the development of highly selective immune suppressants. In addition, the autoimmune phenotype generated with this knock-in mouse is relatively mild. It would be interesting to see how other disease-linked gene variants would cooperate with PEP-R619W to generate either a more aggressive disease or one that resembles a particular autoimmune syndrome. Finally, the ability of B-cell-specific PEP-R619W expression to stimulate autoimmunity suggests that B cells are a critical component of the autoimmune process in patients with this genetic variant. This model provides the opportunity to compare different therapeutic modalities in the PEP-R619W background (for example, B cell depletion versus anti-TNF agents). Such studies could provide the basis for predicting clinical responses to autoimmune therapies based on genotype.
A disease-associated PTPN22 variant promotes systemic autoimmunity in murine models. Dai X, James RG, Habib T, Singh S, Jackson S, Khim S, Moon RT, Liggitt D, Wolf-Yadlin A, Buckner JH, Rawlings DJ. J Clin Invest. 2013 May 1;123(5):2024-36. doi: 10.1172/JCI66963. Epub 2013 Apr 24.